Atkins, which was bought by SNC-Lavalin last year, will lead a consortium including Cushman & Wakefield and Merrett Houmøller Architects to come up with a plan for the upgrade of the station to accommodate planned HS2 and Northern Powerhouse rail services.
In addition to the station upgrade, the team will also be tasked with looking at how to improve transport links to the station, developing the surrounding area, and looking at opportunities for private development.
Work on the masterplan is expected to be completed in April 2019 and will make up part of the Sheffield City Region growth strategy currently in development.
HS2 services will begin to run through Sheffield in 2033.
There is also likely to be more regular services into the station from Northern cities such as Leeds and Manchester as part of the planned Northern Powerhouse Rail programme.
The Atkins-led consortium was picked by a partnership including Sheffield City Council, Sheffield City Region, Transport for the North, Network Rail and HS2 Ltd.
Councillor Mazher Iqbal, cabinet member for business and investment at the Sheffield Council, said: “This is a clear indication of how important the new HS2 station location is to Sheffield and the wider city region.
“The station is absolutely central to our city centre masterplan vision to deliver new jobs, businesses and opportunities to the region.”